Here is some of the information I recently shared in the September newsletter. Each newsletter has a specific focus.  This newsletter is focused on the lymph system and lymphatic drainage. If you would be interested in receiving my other newsletters, which include links to the studies as well as special offers and sales coupons, please head over to my contact page and sign up.


  1. Lymphatic Function Decreases over time in arms on breast cancer patients
  2. Imaging of the Tricipital lymphatic pathway
  3. lymph vessels in superficial fascia of abdomen
  4. Axillo-inguinal lymphatic pathwars
  5. Manual Lymph Drainage vs Compression Bandage
  6. Kinesio tape for facial swelling following orthagnathic surgery


  1. The Lymphatic vascular system
  2. Meningeal lymphatics role


1. A study titled Lymphatic Function Decreases Over Time in the Arms on Breast Cancer Patients Following Treatment, published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery in Sept 2022 concludes: Lymphatic function in the ipsilateral arm deteriorated over time after adjuvant breast cancer therapy. Furthermore, the presence of abnormal torturous lymphatic vessels in asymptomatic arms appeared to be associated with weak lymphatic reserve pumping capacity.

2.  A study, titled Superficial and functional imaging of the tricipital lymphatic pathway: a modern reintroduction published in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment in Nov 2022 concludes: When present, the tricipital pathway coursed along the posterior upper arm with variability in its connections to the forearm distally, and the torso proximally. It may drain lymphatic fluid directly to the scapular lymph nodes, avoiding the axillary lymph node groups.

3. A study, Detection of Lymphatic Vessels in the Superficial Fascia of the Abdomen published in MDPI in March 2023 states: The evaluation of specific characteristics of cells, fibers, blood circulation, and innervation has shown that the superficial fascia has a clear and distinct anatomical identity, but knowledge about lymphatic vessels in relation to the superficial fascia has not been described. In the papillary dermis, a huge presence of lymphatic vessels was highlighted, parallel to the skin surface and embedded in the loose connective tissue. In the superficial adipose tissue, thin lymphatic vessels were found, close to the fibrous septa connecting the dermis to the deeper layers. The deep adipose tissue showed a comparable overall content of lymphatic vessels with respect to the superficial layer; they followed the blood vessel and had a larger diameter. In the superficial fascia, the lymphatic vessels showed higher density and a larger diameter, in both the longitudinal and transverse directions along the fibers, as well as vessels that intertwined with one another, forming a rich network of vessels.

4. A study titled The Prevalence of the Axillo-Inguinal Lymphatic Pathway in Lymphedema of the Extremities and Potential Therapeutic Implications published in Lymphatic Research and Biology in Mar 2023 states: The axillo-inguinal (or inguino-axillary) is a compensatory lymphatic drainage pathway regularly utilized by lymphedema therapists when applying manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) for upper and lower extremity lymphedema. The findings suggest that the axillo-inguinal pathway is an infrequent compensatory drainage pathway in lower extremity lymphedema and rare in upper extremity lymphedema

5. A study, The Effect of Manual Lymph Drainage and Compression Bandaging for Stage 2 Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema: A Randomized Controlled Trial, published in Lymphatic Research and Biology in May 2023 concludes: MLD or CB alone could effectively reduce the volume of affected arms for patients with stage 2 BCRL, and CB also could reduce the LTW( Local tissue water) more significantly. CDT did not seem to show an extra advantage. Therefore, CB may be the first choice for stage 2 BCRL. But for patients who are unwilling or intolerant to CB, MLD can be selected.

6. A study titled The effects of Kinesio tapes on facial swelling following bimaxillary orthognatic surgery in the supraclavicular region, published in Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery in Jun 2023 concludes: As a result of taping lymphatic Kinesio tape on the affected area, tension was reduced, and lymphatic circulation was restored. Blood and lymph microcirculation was improved, enabling the body to heal itself.Kinesio tape reduced swelling after orthognathic surgery in a positive way.


  1. A great review of the lymphatic system and a deeper look at its function and structures. The lymphatic vascular system: much more than just a sewer in Cell & Bioscience Sept 2022.
  2. An article titled Meningeal lymphatics and their role in CNS disorder treatment: moving past misconceptions, published in Front Neurosci in Jul 2023 states: The central nervous system (CNS) was previously thought to lack lymphatics and shielded from the free diffusion of molecular and cellular components by the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB). However, recent findings have redefined the roles played by meningeal lymphatic vessels in the recruitment and drainage of lymphocytes from the periphery into the brain and the potentiation of an immune response. Emerging knowledge surrounding the importance of meningeal lymphatics has the potential to transform the treatment of CNS disorders. This review details the most recent understanding of the CNS-lymphatic network and its immunologic implications in both the healthy and diseased brain. Moreover, the review provides in-depth coverage of several exciting avenues for future therapeutic treatments that involve the meningeal lymphatic system.

Here is some of the information I recently shared in the September newsletter. Each newsletter has a specific focus.  This newsletter is focused on the lymphatic system and lymphatic drainage. If you would be interested in receiving my newsletters, which include links to the studies as well as special offers and sales coupons, please head over to my contact page and sign up.


  1. Effects of Pneumatic Compression with Kinesiotape
  2. Mesenteric lymphatic dysfunction in insulin resistance
  3. Pneumatic compression therapy increases compliance
  4. Physical therapy in women with early-stage lipedema
  5. Lymphatic drainage and muscle energy techniques post third molar surgery
  6. Pedal pump lymphatic technique vs passive recovery
  7. Comparison of low-level laser, kinesio-taping and manual lymphatic drainage


1. A study titled Effect of Intermittent Pneumatic Compression in Combination with Kinesiotape on Post Mastectomy Lymphedema, published in The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine in Oct 2021 concludes: Intermittent Pneumatic Compression in combination with Kinesiotaping was an effective method in post-mastectomy lymphedema more than Complete Decongestive Therapy only.

2.  A study, titled Mesenteric lymphatic dysfunction promotes insulin resistance and represents a potential treatment target in obesity published in Nature Metabolism in Oct 2021 concludes:  …lymph from mice and humans consuming a high-fat diet stimulates lymphatic vessel growth, leading to the formation of highly branched mesenteric lymphatic vessels that “leak” high-fat-diet lymph into visceral adipose tissue and, thereby, promote insulin resistance.

3. A study, Adding Pneumatic Compression therapy in Lower Extremity Lymphedema increases compliance of treatment while decreasing the infection rate, published in Lymphatic Research and Biology in Jun 2022 concludes:  Pneumatic Compression therapy leads to a decrease in infection rate, hospital admissions, and physical therapy visits in clinically significant lower extremity lymphedema.

4. A study titled Physical Therapy in Women with Early Stage Lipedema: Potential Impact of Multimodal Manual Therapy, Compression, Exercise, and Education Interventions, published in Lymphatic Research and Biology in 2022 concludes:  persons with lipedema can benefit from physical therapy to manage characteristic symptoms of leg pain and improve Quality of Life. Objective MRI measurement of reduced tissue sodium in the skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue regions indicates reduced inflammation in the treated limbs.

5. A study, Manual lymphatic drainage and muscle energy techniques after third molar surgery: A randomized split-mouth clinical trial, published in Repositório Aberto da Universidade do Porto in 2021 concludes: …physical therapy is a good, noninvasive, alternative for the control of pain and limitation of mouth opening in the postoperative period of third molars surgery.

6. A study titled The effect of pedal pump lymphatic technique versus passive recovery following maximal exercise: A randomized cross-over trial, published in Sports Medicine in 2022 concludes: the pedal pump significantly decreased blood lactate concentrations following intense exercise at recovery minute 20.

7.  A study The randomized controlled study of low-level laser therapy, kinesio-taping and manual lymphatic drainage in patients with stage II breast cancer-related lymphedema, published at ResearchSquare in Apr 2022, concludes:  kinesio-taping led to better results than manual lymphatic drainage and similarly effective with low-level laser in stage II breast cancer-related lymphedema at 12th weeks follow-up.

Here is some of the information I recently shared in the August newsletter. Each newsletter has a specific focus.  This newsletter is focused on the lymphatic system and lymph drainage therapy. If you would be interested in receiving my newsletters, which include links to the studies as well as special offers and sales coupons, please head over to my contact page and sign up.


  1. Lipossage Endermologie vs Monopolar Radiofrequency on Cellulite
  2. MLD used to treat symptoms of neuro disease
  3. Use of KT to treat chronic knee pain
  4. Effects of lymphatic drainage on autonomic nervous system
  5. Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Therapy after lipoabdominoplasty
  6. Negative Pressure massage for cancer-related lymphedema
  7. Effect of MLD on muscle tone, pain and depression in breast cancer
  8. Hot compress vs Hot ginger compress for breast engorgement
  9. Psychiatric disorders and immune responses intertwined
  10. Use of MLD on musculoskeletal injuries


  1. Anatomy review of the lymphatics of the meningeal system
  2. Anatomy of the mouth lymphatic organs
  3. Tattoo ink presents as calcifications in axillary lymph nodes


1. A study titled Lipomassage Endermologie versus Monopolar Radiofrequency on Cellulite in Females, published in PJMHS July 2020 concludes: Both Monopolar radio frequency therapy and Lipomassage Endermologie were found to be safe, effective, and available at the selected dose. However, Monopolar radio frequency therapy was superior to Lipomassage Endermologie in reducing cellulite.

2.  A study, titled Investigation of the Less Known Effects of Manual Lymphatic Drainage: A Narrative Review, published in Lymphatic Research and Biology, Mar 2021, concludes;  MLD can be used in symptomatic treatment of various diseases (multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease).

3. A study, Current evidence does support the use of KT to treat chronic knee pain in short term: A systematic review and meta-analysis, published in Pain Research and Management in 2021 concludes: KT is essential to relieve chronic knee pain and prevent massive use injuries in patients with chronic knee pain but not in a long-term effects…could be temporarily used in practice for exercise or rehabilitation training.

4. A study titled Effects of lymphatic drainage therapy on autonomic nervous system responses in healthy subjects: A single blind randomized controlled trial, published in Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies Jul 2021 concludes: study demonstrated that LDT decreased autonomic activity via decreased spinal reflex excitability and tension in healthy participants.

5. A study, Influences of Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Therapy on Edema and Postoperative Patient’s Satisfaction after Lipoabdominoplasty published in Aesthetic Plastic Surgery in Apr 2021 concluded: the application of Intermittent Pneumatic Compression therapy while wearing a compression garment was superior as compared to compression garment alone in reaching the abdominal edema and improving postoperative patent satisfaction following lipoabdominoplasty.

6. A small study titled Treatment of breast cancer-related lymphedema using negative pressure massage: A Pilot randomized controlled trial, published in Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation in Aug 2021 concludes:  compared to MLD, treatment with NPMT resulted in greater improvement in L-Dex scores and inter limb volume difference in women with a duration of unilateral upper limb LE of >1 year.

7. A study titled Manual Lymphatic Drainage on the Muscle Tone, Pain, and Depression in patient with breast cancer published in Journal of the Korean Society of Integrative Medicine in 2021 concludes:  MLD is an effective method for reducing muscle tone, pain, and depression in patients with breast cancer. 

8.  A study titled Comparing the effects of hot compress and hot ginger compress on pain associated with breast engorgement, published in Nursing and Midwifery Studies in 2021 concludes: Hot ginger compress is more effective than hot compress in reducing breast engorgement pain among breastfeeding women.

9.  A paper titled Immunoceptive inference: why are psychiatric disorders and immune responses intertwined, published in Biol Philos in 2021 details the relationship between immune responses and the physiology of the brain and concludes:  interoceptive inference claims the brain is continuously updating productions about, and acting upon, the body it inhabit. In our formulation, the body itself ( in this case, the immune system) is seen as furnishing precision of —and acting upon—sensory input, informing “beliefs” about whether an antigen belongs to the category of “self” or “non self.”In so doing, we have highlighted three practical contributions (translation, unification, and simulation ) of the active inference framework…we suggested that it is inevitable that two systems within the same Markov blanket influence each other.

10.  A study titled The use of manual lymphatic drainage on clinical presentation of musculoskeletal injuries: A systematic review published in Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice in 2021 concludes:  Manual lymphatic drainage is as effective as other treatment modalities to reduce edema, manual lymphatic drainage may be used to improve clinical presentation of musculoskeletal injuries, and manual lymphatic drainage may be used alone or combined to other treatment modalities.


  1. An anatomy review of the lymphatics of the meningeal system is in-depth and backed by studies.  It is titled:  Meningeal lymphatic vessels: their morphology, location, and clinical implications, published in EUR J Anat in 2021
  2. A review of the anatomy of the mouth which is very thorough and understandable, titled Anatomy and physiology of the palatine tonsils, adenoids, and lingual tonsils published in World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery in July 2021 is helpful for anyone working on the head and neck.
  3. An information article titled Ink on the move: tattoo pigment resembling axillary lymph node calcifications, published in Clinical Imaging in 2021 highlights:  a)Tattoo pigment may mimic calcifications in axillary lymph nodes; b)  tattoo pigment should be considered in the differential diagnosis of axillary lymph node densities, and c) recognizing pigment migration may help breast radiologists form an appropriate differential diagnosis. 

Here is some of the information I recently shared in the February newsletter. Each newsletter has a specific focus.  This newsletter is focused on lymphatic drainage. If you would be interested in receiving my newsletters, please head over to my contact page and sign up.


  1. Brain Lymphatics role in multiple sclerosis
  2. relationship between lymphatic drainage and Rheumatoid arthritis
  3. Effectiveness of lymphatic drainage and kinesiotaping following total knee replacement
  4. Manual lymphatic drainage following orthognathic surgery
  5. Effectiveness of 4 types of bandages and kinesiotaping for breast cancer lymphedema
  6. Effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on lymph flow
  7. Manual lymphatic drainage during intensive phase of breast cancer lymphedema
  8. Manual lymphatic drainage for stress reduction
  9. Effect of lymphatic drainage maneuvers on the nervous system
  10. Effectiveness of kinesiotaping after total knee arthroplasty


1. An article, titled UVA Identifies Brain’s Lymphatic Vessels as New Avenue to Treat Multiple Sclerosis, published in UVAToday in Sept 2018, suggests: Lymphatic vessels that clean the brain of harmful material play a crucial role in the development and progression of multiple sclerosis. 

2.  An article published in Arthritis & Rheumatology in Aug 2020 titled Altered Lymphatic Vessel Anatomy and Markedly Diminished Lymph Clearance in Affected hands of Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis concludes; Lymphatic drainage in the hands of RA patients with active disease was reduced compared to controls. These findings provide a plausible mechanism for exacerbation of synovitis and joint damage.

3. A study, Effects of combining manual lymphatic drainage and kinesiotaping on pain, edema, and range of motion in patients with total knee replacement: a randomized clinical trial, published in International Journal of Rehabilitation Research in Aug 2020 concludes: the treatment with a combination kinesiotaping and lymphatic drainage provided better results on pain and edema observed as early as the first days after the intervention. No difference was found between kinesiotaping and lymphatic drainage individually.

4. A study titled The effect of manual lymphatic drainage on patient recovery after orthognathic surgery—a qualitative and 3-dimensional facial analysis, published in Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology in Nov 2020, concludes: No significant difference could be found between patients treated with or without MLD after orthognathic surgery with regard to swelling and pain.

5. A study, Effectiveness of four types of bandages and kinesio-tape for treating breast-cancer-related lymphedema: a randomized, single-blind, clinical trial, published in Clinical Rehabilitation in Jun 2020 concluded: simplified multilayer seems more effective and more comfortable than multilayer bandage. Cohesive bandage seems as effective as simplified multilayer and multilayer bandage. Kinesio taping seems the least effective.

6. A study, Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation in the functionality and lymphatic circulation of the upper limb of women undergoing breast cancer treatment, published in Clinical Biomechanics in Dec 2020, concludes: proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation favors an increase in muscle strength and range of motion, but not in lymphatic flow, in women undergoing surgical treatment for breast cancer.

7. A study titled Manual Lymphatic Drainage May Not Have an Additional Effect on the Intensive Phase of Breast Cancer-related Lymphedema: A Randomized Controlled Trial published in Lymphatic Research and Biology in Oct 2020 compared the results of two treatments—both included compressive multilayer bandaging and exercise. One group also received MLD before bandaging. The study findings indicated that both treatment approaches were effective in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema. However, no additional effect of MLD was found with regard to percent reduction in arm volume in the intensive treatment period. 

8.  A study titled The effect of manual lymph drainage on the changes of autonomic nervous system and pain in stressed hospital office employees published in Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information in Nov 2020 and summarized in English found: there were significant differences in sympathetic nerve, parasympathetic nerve, and pain with manual lymphatic drainage. There were significant differences between groups for the sympathetic nerve, parasympathetic nerve, and pain. Therefore, manual lymphatic drainage is an effective intervention for reducing the stress and pain of stressed hospital office employees.

9. A study titled Effects of different neck manual lymphatic drainage maneuvers on the nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory and musculoskeletal systems in healthy students, published in Journal of Clinical Medicine Nov 2020, compared the effects in four groups—control, placebo, Vodder, and Godoy-- and found: no statistically significant differences were found between groups in descriptive data; neither in saturation of oxygen, diastolic blood pressure and cervical range of motion. Significant differences were found in favor of Vodder in heart rate diminution and in cardiac-rate-reduction. A significant difference in respiratory rate diminution is found in favor of the Godoy group in comparison with the control group. A significant difference is found in favor of the Godoy group in systolic blood pressure decrease even in pressure pain threshold. 

10. A study titled Effectiveness of Kinesio Taping on Pain and Function after Total Knee Arthroplasty, published in PJMHS in Dec 2020 compared standard physical therapy and standard physical therapy combined with kinesiotaping. The study concluded positive effects of treatment in both groups but the group that included kinesiotaping exhibited relatively greater improvements in terms of the mean difference of Numeric Pain Rating Scale and Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale. 

Here is some of the information I recently shared in my March newsletter. Each newsletter has a specific focus.  This month is focused on lymph and lymphatic drainage information. If you would be interested in receiving my newsletters, please head over to my contact page and sign up.


I receive a weekly update on anything published anywhere on the internet that includes information about lymph and lymphatic drainage.  I try to glean the best of the information and provide a brief synopsis of the information. If you come across any information that you think would be good to share, please also feel free to pass that information along to:

1. A paper titled Face Lift Postoperative Recovery, published in Aesthetic Plastic Surgery in 2002 provided the following information:  After the skin is lifted, the drainage flow to the flaps is reversed abruptly toward the medial part of the face, where the flap bases are located. The thickness and extension of the flap determine the magnitude of the post-op edema, which is also augmented by medial surgeries (blepharo, rhino) whose trauma obstruct their natural drainage, increasing the congestion and edema…Seven days after the facelift we observed no absorption by the lymphatic, concluding that a week after surgery, the lymphatic network was still damaged...In the post-op, the manual lymphatic drainage is initiated on the third or fifth day in a method contrary to that specified in the books for non-operative individuals.

2.  An article published on Stanford Medicine’s website, titled Anti-inflammatory drug effective for treating lymphedema symptoms states: two small clinical trials showed that ketoprofen, an inflammation-reducing drug available by prescription, can effectively treat symptoms of lymphedema and help ease the daily burden of care. “Ketoprofen restores the health and elasticity of the skin…I believe it will reduce recurrent infection. It can also reduce swelling.”

3.  A study, The lymphatic pathway in neurological disorders, published in The Lancet: Neurology Nov 2018,  states: several features of the lymphatic and meningeal lymphatic systems have been shown to be present in humans…human lymphatic pathway might also be primarily active during sleep. 

4.  An article, titled The Meningeal Lymphatic System: A New Player in Neurophysiology, gives a  thorough explanation and history of the discovery of this system and its implications in disease and treatment.

5.  A study, titled Effect of taping as treatment to reduce breast cancer lymphedema: literature review and published in J Vasc Bras in Apr-2018, concluded:  Taping is a complementary therapy for reducing lymphedema, which may be used as an alternative treatment method, but cannot substitute multilayer compression therapy.

6.  A study, Does Exercise Have a preventive effect on Secondary Lymphedema in Breast Cancer Patients following local treatment?-A systematic Review published in Breast Care (Basel) in Oct 2018 concluded: all 8 studies included indicate a potential preventive effect of exercise on Secondary Lymphedema.

7.  An article titled The CNS Immune-Privilege Goes Down the Drain(age), published in Trends in Pharmacological Sciences in Jan 2019, reviews several studies on the lymphatic role in the nervous system and concludes: ... the work from Lauveau et al represents a landmark study for neuroimmunology research. It is now essential to understand how meningeal lymphatics promote the encephalitogenic potential of auto-reactive T cells and whether the brain’s lymphatic drainage may represent a feasible therapeutic target for neuroinflammatory and autoimmune disorders.  

8.  A study titled The effectiveness of manual lymphatic drainage and low level laser in the treatment of a client with lipedema: an N-of-1 trial, published in Australian Tradition-Medicine Society in 2018, concluded: pain decreased over the duration of the trial, however, there was no discernible difference between using active of sham laser with MLD…

9.  An article, titled Manual lymphatic drainage in chronic venous disease: a forgotten weapon in our armory, published in Indian Journal of Vascular & Endovascular Surgery in 2018, concludes: MLD is an important adjunct in the treatment of advanced Chronic Venous Insufficiency.

10.  A study titled Acute Cardiovascular Responses to the application of manual lymphatic drainage in different body regions, published in Lymphatic Research and Biology in Dec 2018 concluded: MLD practice caused different hemodynamic responses according to body region in a sample of 30 healthy individuals. The results show a decrease in SBP (systolic blood pressure) after neck, abdominal, and leg MLD and lower HRs (heart rate) after arm drainage. DBP (diastolic blood pressure) values decreased after neck and leg MLD and showed an increase after abdominal MLD. These findings support further investigation of the roles of the circulatory system, nervous system, hormonal system, and kidneys to better inform the practice of MLD and our understanding of its effects.  


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